Problems that are addressed by orthodontics
There are 3 main categories of problems faced by the orthodontist:

1. The first is purely orthodontic problems where teeth are positioned irregularly on the jawbone. These problems are apparent even when the mouth is closed, but do not affect the shape of the face.

2. The second is skeletal problems where the jaws do not grow in harmony with respect to each other in the three dimensions (transverse, horizontal, vertical). The teeth may be arranged regularly or not. The skeletal problems have an impact on the smile and the shape of the face viewed from the front (enface) and the side (profile). The goals of an orthodontic treatment include both the correct positioning of the teeth and the harmony of the face and smile.

3. The third is a combination of first and second type.  The patient has dental and skeletal problems that affect the mouth and the smile, as well as the overall facial appearance.

We hope that by keeping in mind these few tips you will have a better understanding of the orthodontic cases that follow:


Dental Problems

Crowded teeth
Crowding occurs when teeth do not have enough space to erupt. Crowding can often be corrected by widening the jaw and thus avoiding extractions of permanent teeth. The delayed start of orthodontic treatment often deprives the patient of this possibility and inevitably leads to extractions of permanent teeth.
Teeth with spaces
Gaps between teeth can be caused by missing teeth, teeth with abnormal morphology or misaligned teeth due to pressure from the tongue or lower lip.
Teeth in heterotopia
Teeth that grow in the wrong place
Teeth without contacts
An open bite results when the upper and lower front teeth do  have no contacts, resulting in posterior teeth being subject to increased wear since they are disproportionately stressed from the forces of chewing.
Deep bite
The upper front teeth overlap vertically the lower front teeth. The lower teeth cannot be seen when smiling.
Protruding upper teeth
The appearance and function of the teeth are greatly affected by this type of problem, which is characterized by the upper front teeth protruding forward. There is a high risk of fracture in accidents, especially in young patients.
Impacted teeth
These are teeth that cannot erupt due to lack of space or poor positioning inside the jawbone.
Supernumerary teeth
Sometimes an additional number of teeth is created and they usually have to be extracted.


Skeletal problems
Cross bite
The upper jaw is narrower than the lower; the child can not bite symmetrically. The lower jaw deviates to one side with visible facial asymmetry head (transversal plane).
Upper jaw prognathism

The upper jaw is considerably in front of the lower. The front teeth show large spaces. Both the face and the closure of the lips are greatly affected laterally and frontally.                                                                  


Lower jaw prognathism

The lower jaw is in a position substantially in front of the upper or overdeveloped. The front teeth may be crowded or even normal. The face and closure of the lips are severely affected in the horizontal sense.

Problems of occlusion

The upper and lower teeth do not contact properly and thus influence the vertical proportions of the face.


Dental and Skeletal Problems
Upper jaw prognathism
Upper jaw prognathism, narrowing of the dental arch and spaces between the teeth
Lower jaw retrognathism
Lower jaw retrognathism with covering of the lower teeth by the upper ones.
Lower jaw prognathism
Lower jaw prognathism with congestion of the teeth.